By Artur Victoria

Acknowledging that choices among alternative approaches to planning, job design, communications systems, etc., should take into account organization and human variables seems logical and may appear obvious (though the number of organizations in which illogical choices have been made is large). Not so obvious, however, is the fact that there are logical linkages among the integrative mechanisms themselves.

For example, the choice of a particular approach to planning cannot and should not be made independently of the approach to designing jobs or distributing rewards in the organization. Instead, in an effective administrative system, planning is complemented by job design, which in turn fits logically with the reward system, etc. Conversely, many problems in modern organizations are directly traceable to inconsistencies among the component parts of the administrative system-approaches in one area simply do not fit with, or even work at cross-purposes to, administrative efforts in other areas. The need for a high-quality fit among the components in an administrative system is well illustrated in the following (real-life) example where the inconsistency between planning and control is glaring.

Organization A is a medium-size manufacturing firm in a high-technology industry. It has four operating divisions, each functioning in highly competitive, rapidly changing markets. Recognizing the needs for a rapid product and a technological development to keep pace with market demands, the top management has instructed division managers to run their own operations. Along with this administrative decision, however, top management has specified that division controllers must have primary reporting responsibility to the corporate controller. Moreover, top management has a policy that all capital expenditures in excess of Euros: 50.000 must be approved by a headquarters planning group. The effect of these latter administrative decisions on the motivation of division managers is predictable. They feel they are being controlled, and they complain that the purchase and/ or refurbishment of operating equipment is so delayed by the corporate review process that they cannot match the innovation rate of their competitors.

Thus, corporate efforts to develop an administrative process in which decentralized divisions adapt rapidly to market changes are being thwarted by control procedures more appropriate to stable environmental conditions and centralized decision.

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The role of administration is to integrate a complex set of organization and human variables and that effective integration is most likely to occur when there is a high degree of consistency among the integrative mechanisms chosen by top administrators. Integration, however, is not the ultimate purpose of organizational systems. Organizations are created to serve some hopefully useful social function, and this function is best achieved when the organization is effective (i.e., does the right things), efficient (i.e., does these things right), and satisfies the needs of its members.

The quality of the choices made by administrators in designing their organizations will, of course, have an effect on organizational performance and member satisfaction. And whether these choices serve as a foundation for, or as a barrier to, organizational growth and renewal, is, as indicated earlier, one of the tests of effective administration. But, while most administrative groups seek to design high-performing organizations, there is no single administrative system that will guarantee this outcome. While management is constrained by both organization and human variables, its choice of a given system of administration is clearly not dictated. In these situations, administrators are influenced by a final set of variables not yet incorporated into our model. They are influenced by their own theories of how and why people in organizations behave as they do and, therefore, how and why they as administrators ought to behave in a particular fashion.

Within the block assigned to administrator theories, there are three, the Traditional, Human Relations, and Human Resources. While in fact every administrator has his own theory of administration – his own set of concepts which in part guides his behavior and his choices among alternatives in the areas described above-we believe that most administrator views can be clustered around one of the three models.

Most likely, only infrequently does the practicing administrator desire, or feel compelled, to pause from his ongoing activities and analyze his own theory of administration. And yet every administrator has such a theory which, if more fully explicated, might be of immense value to him as he designs and redesigns his organization. Although it is not often recognized, even by successful administrators, every manager behavior and decisions are influenced by his theory of administration (in essence, a theory is an explanation of how and why someone or something behaves as he or it does). For example, the general belief that, left unsupervised, employees will soldier on the job implies an underlying set of assumptions about people’s attitudes toward work and the administrative mechanisms required to obtain productivity.

Were an administrator to sit down and analyze the characteristics of his own organization, he might begin to develop the theory that appears to underlie what he observes. And, as in the example of Organization he might find some logical inconsistencies in this theory of administration. In an effort to make this exercise easier, we offer three alternative administrative models which exhibit a high degree of internal consistency among

(1) the assumptions made about human attitudes and behavior;

(2) typical administrative actions developed in accordance with these assumptions; and

(3) the expected results which are likely to occur if administrators behave as suggested. No claim is made that any existing administrative system is fully captured by the Traditional, Human Relations, or Human Resources models. However, the essence of a particular system can usually be found to conform closely to one of the three models, and, taken together; the three models cover a broad range of alternative approaches to administration.

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Wednesday, June 11, 2014

Saeb Erekat, head of the Palestinian Negotiation Group, delivered to the UN Security Council on Tuesday a letter from the Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas, urging the UN to tend to the issue of Palestinian administrative detainees in Israeli prisons who have gone on a hunger strike. He further noted that a new Israeli bill, allowing to force feed hunger strikers, undermines international conventions.

The reportedly longest group hunger strike in Palestinian history is currently taking place. It was initiated in April by 125 Palestinian prisoners detained in Israeli prisons, in a protest against Israel’s detention policy, which allows imprisonment without trial or conviction. Since the beginning of the hunger strike, about 80 of them are being treated in hospitals, some facing severe health risks. Some striking prisoners have told Egyptian paper Al-Masry Al-Youm they are determined and will not cease until they win or die a martyr’s death. They have also told the paper they had sent letters to the Egyptian leadership, asking it to tend to their situation and put an end to administrative detentions.

With the ongoing hunger strike, an Israeli bill has been drafted, allowing force-feeding of hunger striking prisoners, and use of extra force if needed. Arab Organization for Human Rights prisoners affairs committee manager Janan Abdu said, in communication with Al-Masry Al-Youm, “After the success of individual hunger strikes by Khader Adnan, Hana Shalabi, and Samer al-Issawi and others, Israel is trying to apply a law on forced feeding, which is internationally forbidden and which violates international human rights and the Fourth Geneva Convention, to break the will of prisoners”.

Monday, April 3, 2017

Well-known pop art figure James Rosenquist died on Friday, his family announced, in his New York City home after a long illness, at the age of 83.

Mr Rosenquist leaves behind a legacy of involvement in the pop art movement, playing a pivotal role in the movement’s conception in the 1960s. His career as a heyday pop-artist was defined by his billboard painting style which incorporated subject matter from popular culture and the mass media and created large scale artworks.

Although his works were rarely politically charged, his best-known work, the 1964/1965 F-111, used a combination of war imagery and everyday influences to protest US militarism in relation to the Vietnam War. It now resides in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

The 1960s pop art movement was defined by artists like Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, contemporaries of Mr. Rosenquist. Although part of the same art movement, Rosenquist wrote in his 2009 autobiography, Painting Below Zero: Notes on a Life in Art, that he was less interested in “logos or brand names”, and more concerned with creating what he described as “mysterious pictures”.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Chinese state news today declared Jade Rabbit, China’s first moon rover, irreparably damaged.

The Chang’e 3 lander, the first lunar lander for 37 years and of the third nationality, touched down and launched Jade Rabbit in December. Jade Rabbit was designed to spend three months seeking out natural resources but has not functioned since a fault was discovered on January 25.

The probes have to shut down for two weeks each month to survive the “lunar night”, during which surface temperature drops to -180 °C or less. The first lunar night of the mission was weathered successfully but Chinese scientists suspected the rover had failed on the 25th when the second night rolled in. Communication could only be attempted when the night ended on Monday, but reactivation efforts failed and the rover is now confirmed derelict.

State-owned Xinhua news agency blamed the fault on “the complicated lunar surface environment”. Only the US and ex-USSR had previously landed rovers on the moon, with China and the States fueling renewed interest in Earth’s natural satellite as a possible source of minerals.

Submitted by: Astra Health

If a ferritin test shows higher than normal levels, it could indicate that you have a condition that causes your body to store too much iron. It could also point to liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory conditions or hyperthyroidism. Some types of cancer also may cause your blood ferritin level to be high.

If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ferritin level is lower than normal, it indicates your body’s iron stores are low and you have iron deficiency.

Ferritin is a test done to assess the iron content in the body. Since iron is important for the apt functioning of red cells that carry oxygen to other cells, if the doctor suspects lack of iron, he suggests test to detect the underlying problem.Both the conditions i.e. iron deficiency or iron overload demands ferritin test. This helps in measuring the amount of iron stored in the body, thereby providing accurate picture of iron levels in the body.

If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ferritin level is lower than normal, it indicates your body’s iron stores are low and you have iron deficiency.

Doctors at medical center South Bound Brook, explain Ferritin aswhich stores iron, and provide it to the body when needed. It mostly lives in the bodys cells, and circulating within the blood in a nominal quantity. As per the Reputed Laboratories, ferritin carries only 20 percent of iron leaving greatest concentrations in liver cells (known as hepatocytes) as well as in the immune system (reticuloendothelial cells).Transferrin on the other hand is a protein which combines with ferritin and transportsthe same to the spot where new red blood cells are being developed. As a matter of fact, in case a person lack ferritin, the iron stores within the body starts to deplete at a very faster rate.

Below listed are some of the prime symptoms that lead to the situation of carrying out a Ferritin Test. The condition can be moderate to serve in case of lack or overload of protein and tend to show different negative health related signs, some of which are discussed below. In case the ferritin is low, the patient is prone to experience:

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Unexplained fatigue

Dizziness

Chronic headaches

Ringing in ears

Agitation

Pain in legs

Shortness of breath

Weakness

In case of high Ferritin Levels, the staff at medical center Middlesex highlights some of the unpleasant symptoms that are listed as under:

Abdominal pain

Heart palpitations

chest pains

Pain in joints

Unexplained fatigue and weakness

Under any circumstance, if one feels that the Ferritin levels are fluctuating; immediate consulting of the doctor is suggested to hand-hold the situation right at its beginning. This condition can elevate the severity and might imposedamage to body organssuch as liver and spleen damage. This test helps the medical professionals to monitor patientshealth closely, especially in case he/she has iron-related condition. People with iron deficiency should get this test done at regular intervals to avoid getting into serious health problems.

For more log on to: https://astra-hc.com/

About the Author: Hi, I work for the astra health care. I am their leading content writer. I specialise in medicine and I work as a part time content writer. Check out our website for more:

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Sunday, December 13, 2015

This article is a featured article. It is considered one of the best works of the Wikinews community. See Wikinews:Featured articles for more information.

Macomb, New York Councilman Steve Burke took some time to speak with Wikinews about his campaign for the U.S. Democratic Party’s 2016 presidential nomination.

Burke, an insurance adjuster and farmer, was elected councilman in Brookhaven, New York in 1979. He left the town after being accused and found not guilty of bribery in the 1980s. Since 1987 he has served as Macomb councilman off-and-on and currently holds the post. From 1993 to 1996 and 1999 to 2002 he worked as chairman of the Democratic Party of St. Lawrence County, New York. Among his many political campaigns, Burke unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination in 1992 and recently attempted to run for U.S. Congress in 2014 but too many of his ballot petition signatures were found invalid. Burke filed with the Federal Election Commission to run for president in the 2016 election on September 18, 2015 and has qualified for the first-in-the-nation New Hampshire Primary.

With Wikinews reporter William S. Saturn?, Burke discusses his political background, his 2016 presidential campaign, and his policy proposals.

Saturday, October 22, 2005

New Paltz, New York — More than 350 U.S. students took part in a demonstration Friday outside the SUNY New Paltz Student Union Building where student leaders used a bullhorn from the rooftop to rally the gathering on the concourse below. University police dispersed student leaders from the roof which was followed by more than 100 students storming the Haggerty Administration Building (HAB).

During the 2004–2005 academic year, students lobbied for a $10 million renovation project for their Student Union Building, which has not been renovated since its construction more than 30 years ago.

HAB spokesman Eric Gullickson said that the supplemental appropriation for the project is the largest in the history of the college and that the six-member advisory committee includes three students but that; “the Student Association, which was offered the first seat on this committee, declined the opportunity,” Gullickson said.

Student leaders, including Student Body President R.J. Partington III and Student Senate ChairJustin Holmes, who played a role in organizing this demonstration, testified during the Spring 2005 semester before the New York State Assembly Committee on Higher Education, eventually winning the renovation project. Holmes says that Gullickson’s assertions are; “an out-and-out lie. The SA was never offered such a seat. We were offered 1 seat on a seven seat committee, with the administration selecting the other six members.”

The major arguments for a capital project on the Student Union Building were that it:

  • did not accommodate organizations and organization office needs
  • lacked crucial technology for student mobilization
  • was built for a student population less than half the size of 2005, and
  • was one of the longest standing Student Unions in the SUNY system which had not undergone a renovation

During the Fall 2005 semester the HAB claimed that it would oversee the renovation project, citing the need for a larger lobby and bookstore.

The Kingston Daily Freeman reported:

The crystallizing issue for the demonstration was the upcoming $10 million renovation of the Student Union building. The renovation, scheduled to begin in about two years, will be the first major change to the building since it was built 34 years ago, according to college spokesman Eric Gullickson, who said the supplemental appropriation for the project in the state budget is the largest in the college’s history.

Gullickson also said that a six-member committee had been formed to guide the design process, but student leaders, including Partington, were told that the proposed committee would be seven members, including four non-students and two students who were appointed by the HAB.

“No matter the size and makeup of the HAB’s so-called renovation committee, it has nothing to do with the actual renovation process, which will be administered by a student committee, with input from other parties of course considered,” responded Holmes.

During the Fall 2005 semester, Student Body President R.J. Partington III attempted to negotiate with Administrators, including HAB President Steven G. Poskanzer, over the project.

The HAB refused to concede to student demands.

At this point, the Student Senate passed legislation proclaiming that the project would be overseen by a committee where students constitute a majority, and Partington announced that he “did not recognize and would not sit on” any committee that did not meet the needs of students.

Vice President of Acacdemic Affairs & Governance, Stephanie Adika said, “If the HAB won’t even listen to us about our own building, how are they going to listen to us about all the other problems the students have with SUNY New Paltz.”

Saturday, October 22, 2005

New Paltz, New York — More than 350 U.S. students took part in a demonstration Friday outside the SUNY New Paltz Student Union Building where student leaders used a bullhorn from the rooftop to rally the gathering on the concourse below. University police dispersed student leaders from the roof which was followed by more than 100 students storming the Haggerty Administration Building (HAB).

During the 2004–2005 academic year, students lobbied for a $10 million renovation project for their Student Union Building, which has not been renovated since its construction more than 30 years ago.

HAB spokesman Eric Gullickson said that the supplemental appropriation for the project is the largest in the history of the college and that the six-member advisory committee includes three students but that; “the Student Association, which was offered the first seat on this committee, declined the opportunity,” Gullickson said.

Student leaders, including Student Body President R.J. Partington III and Student Senate ChairJustin Holmes, who played a role in organizing this demonstration, testified during the Spring 2005 semester before the New York State Assembly Committee on Higher Education, eventually winning the renovation project. Holmes says that Gullickson’s assertions are; “an out-and-out lie. The SA was never offered such a seat. We were offered 1 seat on a seven seat committee, with the administration selecting the other six members.”

The major arguments for a capital project on the Student Union Building were that it:

  • did not accommodate organizations and organization office needs
  • lacked crucial technology for student mobilization
  • was built for a student population less than half the size of 2005, and
  • was one of the longest standing Student Unions in the SUNY system which had not undergone a renovation

During the Fall 2005 semester the HAB claimed that it would oversee the renovation project, citing the need for a larger lobby and bookstore.

The Kingston Daily Freeman reported:

The crystallizing issue for the demonstration was the upcoming $10 million renovation of the Student Union building. The renovation, scheduled to begin in about two years, will be the first major change to the building since it was built 34 years ago, according to college spokesman Eric Gullickson, who said the supplemental appropriation for the project in the state budget is the largest in the college’s history.

Gullickson also said that a six-member committee had been formed to guide the design process, but student leaders, including Partington, were told that the proposed committee would be seven members, including four non-students and two students who were appointed by the HAB.

“No matter the size and makeup of the HAB’s so-called renovation committee, it has nothing to do with the actual renovation process, which will be administered by a student committee, with input from other parties of course considered,” responded Holmes.

During the Fall 2005 semester, Student Body President R.J. Partington III attempted to negotiate with Administrators, including HAB President Steven G. Poskanzer, over the project.

The HAB refused to concede to student demands.

At this point, the Student Senate passed legislation proclaiming that the project would be overseen by a committee where students constitute a majority, and Partington announced that he “did not recognize and would not sit on” any committee that did not meet the needs of students.

Vice President of Acacdemic Affairs & Governance, Stephanie Adika said, “If the HAB won’t even listen to us about our own building, how are they going to listen to us about all the other problems the students have with SUNY New Paltz.”

By Ben Sanderson

Most people truly wish they had an insight into the steps required for becoming wealthy. Then there are those that are somewhat remiss over the fact they invested a few dollars into self-help make money books only to be disappointed with the results. Yes, there are a lot of services out there making claims regarding how you can become wealthy but they fail to deliver. This is not the case with The Fountain of Wealth by Paul Zane Pilzer as he has devised a brilliant process for attaining solid financial well being. That process is clear detailed in a solid 6 audio CD work.

No, this is not a rehash of the “same old, same old” wealth generating material. The Fountain of Wealth by Paul Zane Pilzer brings a lot more to the table than you might expect. It is a truly innovative and provides solid insight.

Paul Zane Pilzer breaks down the many reasons why a capitalist economy presents effective strategies for amassing wealth. Such wealth can even be the conduit for enhanced personal happiness. One such way this is achieved is through the presentation of the Six Laws of Economic Alchemy. Unlike the “real” alchemy of the Middle Ages, this principle actually works. In all seriousness, these six laws provide a clear description of how our economy is structured. Once such a clear definition has been provided, it becomes possible to take the needed steps to make the system work for you. Many never gain such insight and this is unfortunate. Don’t fall into that trap. Then again, thanks to The Fountain of Wealth, you won’t fall into that trap.

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If there was one law that truly is the most inspiring it would be the fact that a capitalist economy offers a fountain of opportunity for gaining wealth. Once you realize this, you can move on to attaining your full life’s potential. This CD series definitely does help you maximize such an outcome since it deals with the specifics needed to attain such goals.

Paul Zane Pilzer is definitely a person who knows what he is taking about. He made his first million by the age of 26. He has a lifetime of experience in the world of finance including a stint as a VP at Citibank and as a former advisor to the late President Reagan. He understands how to make money and do so in a safe and sane manner. Consider him an authority well worth listening to.

There is a lot to listen to on this 6 compact disc set. In addition to the CDs, a workbook and opportunity journal is included. Such items certainly help enhance the potential to get the most out of the lesson plan. Remember, the more you get out of the lesson plan, the greater the odds you will succeed in your endeavors. Clearly, that would be what the consumer wants out of The Fountain of Wealth.

Paul Zane Pilzer has definitely hit a proverbial home run with this compact disk set. It delivers on expectations while avoiding a rehash of common generic financial help advice. Consider it a solid work of great merit.

About the Author: Please visit The Personal Development Company if you would like to learn more about

The Fountain of Wealth

by

Paul Zane Pilzer

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Thursday, April 28, 2011

On Wednesday, at the first live public news conference ever given by the Federal Reserve (Fed), Federal Reserve Chairman Ben S. Bernanke explained the US central bank’s recent policy to a small group of reporters and answered some questions.

The conference was conducted two hours after the release of a report by the Fed’s policymaking committee, the Federal Open Market Committee outlining its policies decided the day before. Until 1994 the Fed gave no information about the policy decisions made in its meetings pertaining to short-term interest rates and other policies. The public was left to guess what decisions were. In 1994 the Fed began issuing brief reports.

Unlike the US, the central banks in Europe, Japan, Canada and other countries have regularly meetings with the press after making such policy decisions.

The public has increasingly been aware of the secretive practices of the Fed, especially after its unprecedented intervention with massive bailouts of large financial institutions during the recent financial crises.

At Wednesday’s meeting, it was decided that the Fed would maintain near-zero interest rates to stimulate the economy. It announced that it plans to end its program of buying back treasury bonds by the end of June, a program receiving criticism from Republicans concerned about the budget deficit.

Bernanke’s exchange with reporters, called “historic” by the Los Angeles Times, was the first of a series of regular news conferences planned to be held quarterly by Bernanke to provided the Fed with more transparency. He was cautious in his remarks. He made no news but explained in general terms the Fed’s policy.

He said the Fed is attempting to revive the US economy by creating jobs and keeping inflation low.

“The trade-offs are getting less attractive at this point,” Bernanke said. “Inflation has gotten higher … it’s not clear we can get substantial improvements in payrolls without some additional inflation risk.”

Unfortunately, the reason we use this vaguer terminology is we don’t know with certainty how quickly response will be required.

During the conference, Bernanke said he recognized that the average American was unhappy with the increasing inflation and the slow job growth, but said the Fed projected that long-term inflation will remain stable while he acknowledged the effects of the short-term price increases which he said were driven largely by the increase in the price of oil.

“There’s not much the Federal Reserve can do about gas prices, per se, at least not without derailing growth entirely, which certainly is not the right way to go,” Bernanke said. “After all, the Fed can’t create more oil.”

When asked by reporters to explain his vague answers, he gave general replies. For example, when asked to clarify the Fed’s intention to maintain near-zero interest rates for an “extended period” he said the wording suggested this period would probably continue through a couple more policymaking meetings at least.

“Unfortunately, the reason we use this vaguer terminology is we don’t know with certainty how quickly response will be required,” he said.

Diane Swonk, chief economist at Mesirow Financial, said of Bernanke’s performance at the press conference, “He was well-prepared and did exactly what he wanted to do – do no harm.”

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